Yes, according to an official Google statement, injecting ads or pop-ups is a negative ranking factor. Google will penalize anyone for:
“injecting new ads or pop-ups on pages, or swapping out existing ads on a webpage with different ads; or promoting or installing software that does so” source.
As a matter of fact, do anything weird with Google’s revenue-generating AdSense, and you’re likely to end up with a penalty. Don’t be evil, Google (“don’t be evil” used to be part of Google’s corporate code of conduct, but it’s has been removed in early 2018). I wonder why?!