Yes, Google penalizes “thin content with little or no added value”, as you will see in the screenshots below.
According to an official statement from Google,
“Some webmasters attempt to improve their pages’ ranking and attract visitors by creating pages with many words but little or no authentic content. Google will take action against domains that try to rank more highly by just showing scraped or other cookie-cutter pages that don’t add substantial value to users.” source
“If you see this message [watch the video quoted in the source] on the Manual Actions page, it means that Google has detected low-quality pages or shallow pages on your site.” source
Thin content can lead to partial or site-wide penalties: