Yes, multiple same-URL links are (or used to be) a ranking factor, according to Google’s former spokesman Matt Cutts.
According to the original PageRank formula (which has probably changed a lot since it was implemented), if you had multiple links pointing to one URL, that URL will get more PageRank (the sum of PageRank from each link).
“both of those links would flow PageRank, twice as much PageRank would flow through that link. So, that’s the way that things worked in the original PageRank”. source